Exercise Science Notes 3

Posted by Nicole

It’s that time again!

In case you missed it:

All notes come from my class lectures:

Exercise Science 202 — Principles of Nutrition and Exercise

Obesity and Weight Loss


  • Mississippi is the most obese- 32.5% adult obesity, 44% obese children
  • Alabama is second- 31.3% adult obesity
  • West Virginia is third- 31.1% adult obesity
  • Colorado is the LOWEST- 18.9% adult obesity

Infant Obesity

  • results from small changes in the infant diet (ex. juice vs. fruit)
  • by 9 months, many infants already show signs of weight gain
  • how to prevent infant obesity? let child have enough naps, breast-feeding is ideal diet, choose a good daycare
  • children that overeat have more fat cells and are more likely to continue developing more fat cells into childhood; this makes them more likely to have hypoplasia (severe obesity)

Methods of Weight Loss

A. Exercise Devices- clothing, etc.

  • Joe Weder’s Body Shaper- boasted that people could “lose inches all over”
  • EMS- muscle stimulator that causes twitching, not actual movement
  • plastic body wraps- drain water from the body, just lose water weight
  • rollers/belts
  • at-home machines- *need to be out in the open and easy to access, or else they are forgotten about (out of sight, out of mind)

B. Drugs- prescriptions must be FDA approved- focus on appetite suppression

  • Phenfen- taken off of market because of cardiovascular problems
  • Topamax- used to tread migraines and seizures, but it has a side effect of weight loss
  • Xenical- inhibits lipase, blocks fat consumption; lose about 1 lb/month. It has a bad side effect though… you don’t digest fully and you have anal-leakage (EW)
  • Alli- common drug, dosage problems, people take more and more
  • Ipecac- induces vomiting so there are no net-calories

C. Surgery-

  • Lap Band
  • Gastroingestinal Bypass
  • Duodenal Sleeve- plastic sleeve that keeys food from the duodenum so it goes straight to the intestines
  • Liposuction

D. Weight Loss Diets

  • Single food emphasis- grapefruit, cabbage soup
  • Very low-cal diets (<500 cals)- leads to a drop in fat-free mass (AKA muscle) so this is not good
  • Single nutrient diets- focus on protein, carbs, or fat- low carb/high fat diets promote ketosis (burns fat instead of carbs- this is bad)

Sole Food tests on Rats: they were given water and one other type of food from these choices:

  • dog food
  • enriched white bread
  • enriched breakfast cereal
  • whole milk: rats did well, but got very pale and anemic because cow’s milk is very iron deficient
  • skim milk: rats became blind with cataracts.  The milk doesn’t have fat so they would drink a lot of skim milk to be satisfied
  • orange juice: rats lost weight and diet
  • hamburgers: rats became paralyzed because meat is missing calcium
  • fresh spinach: rats died within three days


  • losing weight and regaining the weight- the body becomes more efficient in regaining the weight
  • takes longer to lose the same amount of weight and the weight is regained faster

Recommendations for Weight Loss/Maintenance

  • caloric deficit of ~500 calories
  • increase carbs and protein, decrease fat
  • thermogenic effect- protein has the highest effect, carbs are next
  • “a calorie is a calorie, no matter where it comes from”
    • a calorie of protein gives you .85 calories
    • a calorie of carbs gives you .9 calories
    • a calorie of a fat is a calorie of fat
  • do not eat in front of distractions
  • do not shop for yourself- if you do, don’t shop when hungry
  • eat several small meals/day and eat slowly
  • precede larger meals with hot watery soup and/or salad
  • don’t use food as a reward


Maintaining Body Weight- Do we have an internal “calorie counter”?

1. Physiological Cues

  • Hypothalamus
  • Blood glucose levels- higher glucose, lower hunger
  • Blood free fatty acid and amino acid levels
  • Feedback from GI tract
  • Grehlin secreted- you get hungry; liquid calories do not inhibit grehlin
  • CCK sent to the brain when food is at the stomach and intestines
  • Body temperature
  • Exercise- a sedentary individual is not able to determine how many calories are needed

2. Psycho-Social Cues

  • Boredom
  • Time of day
  • Peer influence
  • Portions of food
  • Free food
  • Emotions
  • Sight, smell, thought
  • Speed of ingest

The Modern Food Environment is BAD

  • cheap food, large portions
  • candy at checkout lines- impulse buys
  • 2 liters of soda costs less than 2 liters of water
  • half of food money is spent at restaurants
  • consumers want flavor- add sugar and salt
  • consumers want value- value meals
  • 2.5 billion overweight people by 2015; 0.75 billion obese people 2015

Sorry this is kind of a weird set of notes… talking about weight loss and surgeries is not the most fun topic, but hopefully you found something interesting!

Q4U: Which psycho-social hunger cue affects you the most?  Boredom, time of day, peer influence, portion size, free food, emotions, sight/smell/thought, speed of eating? 

Comments (10)

  1. fitinthemidwest

    Love when you share these notes Nicole! Thanks again. They’re all so interesting, even if they are things a lot of us know already.

  2. Tara

    Oh yay I love these posts!! The food tests on the rats sound interesting, especially the fact that they fared well with the whole milk. I would say the psycho hunger cue that I’m most vulnerable to is time and boredom, though all of them definitely affect me at one time or another. I seem to get hungry really fast at school, which I assume is due to boredom.

  3. blondiebakesandbikes

    ooooh no i love this! so interesting! i go to uc davis and i love your girls blog! i nominated you for the versatile blogger award, pass it on!! :) http://blondiebakesandbikes.wordpress.com/2011/10/05/versatile-blogger-award/

    1. Sugar Coated Sisters (Post author)

      Thanks for the nomination! We’ll be sure to check it out! :)

  4. Casey @ Pocket Full of Sunshine

    This is such an interesting post! If I’m drinking alcohol, I definitely am not eating healthy. :) I just can’t do beer and a salad, haha! It calls for pizza all the way!

  5. Lauren @ Sugar Coated Sisters


    infant obesity – so sad! 4th bullet point. word.
    methods of weight loss – in home machines. i want a treadmill. bullets b-d: scary.
    is chocolate a carb? please say it’s a protein.
    psycho-social cue: when my computer or tv are in front of me. ev-er-y-time

  6. Pingback: Fitness: Update + Tips 10/10 (and a B-DAY!) | Sugar Coated Sisters

  7. The Diet Solution Program

    Hi there! I just wish to give a huge thumbs up for the good info you’ve got here on this post. I will be coming again to your blog for extra soon.

  8. Pingback: Exercise Science Notes 4 | Sugar Coated Sisters

  9. Pingback: Exercise Science Notes 5 | Sugar Coated Sisters

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