Exercise Science Notes 5

Posted by Nicole

Studying for finals…….. bleh.  Went to bed at 6:15 AM last night (morning?) and woke up at 2:30 PM.  I have a final Wednesday, two on Thursday, and one on Friday… then I’m home free for an entire month!  Just gotta power through this.

Anyhow, exercise notes, yeah.

Last time we talked about digestion, carbs, protein, and lipids.  Today I’ll be talking about a lot of random stuff, enjoy!

In case you missed it:

All notes come from my class lectures:

Exercise Science 202 — Principles of Nutrition and Exercise

Food Safety

Cooking Meats

  • Poultry ~170° F
  • Beef ~160° F
  • cook at a temperature high enough to kill microorganisms, but you don’t want to overheat products
  • too much heat can produce Hetercyclic Amine (HCAs)- poultry and meats have the most HCAs because they have the greatest amount of amino acids and when they cook, they release them.  (HCAs are a carcinogen, so this is bad)
  • using lean meats/poultry results in the least amount of HCAs because the meats have less fat
  • discarding the juice from meat packages reduces HCAs by 90%
  • cooking frozen meat overexposes the surfaces to high temperatures but the insides don’t cook as quickly– need to make sure that meat is defrosted all the way through
  • avoid blackened/charred foods because the flames are bad… think of meat fat dripping onto charcoals and the HCAs being transferred

Freezer Food

  • temperature of freezer should be 0° F
  • technically, food will stay safe indefinitely, but the taste/texture might change
  • breads can be stored 2-3 months before they lose some flavor/texture
  • cooked poultry 4 months
  • uncooked poultry 1 year
  • beef and pork 2-3 months
  • fruit 8-12 months, but it should be wrapped up
  • veggies 8-12 months
  • soups 2-3 months


  • 170 million+ people worldwide have diabetes
  • it is estimated that the number will be almost doubled by 2030
  • more common in developed countries

Type I Diabetes

  • no insulin production
  • genetic, developed early in life
  • sudden

Type II Diabetes

  • known as “Adult Onset Diabetes”
  • insulin resistance, might produce it but the receptors aren’t sensitive to it –> don’t necessarily need insulin, just need a controlled diet
  • 90% of all new cases of diabetes are Type II
  • factors contributing to Type II Diabetes: age over 45, family history, race/ethnicity (greater with Hispanics, African-Americans, Asians), metabolic syndrome, overweight (BMI>25), hypertension, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, giving birth to a baby over 9 lb (women only, obviously), abdominal fat on the waist (>40 inches for men, >35 inches for women)

Diagnosing Diabetes

  • Fasting glucose <110 is good; 110-126 is impaired fasting glucose; >126 is diabetic
  • 2 Hour glucose levels can be measured after having a sugary drink. <140 is normal; 140-199 is impaired glucose tolerance; >200 is diabetic

Microvascular Problems from Diabetes

  • eye problems, reduced vision and potential blindness
  • scarring and changes on kidney tissues, chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis
  • nervous system changes- numbness and tingling in the feet
  • skin damage
  • potential amputation

Micronutrients- Vitamins and Minerals


  • organic compounds required in very small quantities and involved in various chemical reactions
  • fat soluble- A, D, E, K
  • H2O soluble- B complex, C
  • you should take vitamins/minerals on a full stomach because it’s more likely that enzymes will be present to digest and process them
  • why do people take supplements: diet is not complete, it is a way to make sure all vitamins and minerals are adequate, it is simple/cheap, might need some specific nutrient, food supply is too overprocessed
  • they lose their nutrients from: growing, harvesting, storage, processing, consumer use, but MOSTLY from cooking at high temperatures.  Vitamin C especially gets lost during cooking, but it’s okay because most sources of it are eaten raw
  • foods should be kept in tight containers so they are not exposed to air or light, this will help decrease oxygenation

Vitamin A – Retinol

  • functions: cell proliferation, protects the retina (eye), bone health
  • recommended daily allowance (RDA) 5000 IU men, 4000 IU women
  • two types of Vitamin A- preformed and precursors (carotenoids)
  • preformed Vit A found in eggs, beef, liver, milk
  • carotenoids found in spinach, orange/yellow fruits, veggies (carrots!)
  • the myths about carrots helping eye sight is not really true, but it is true that Vitamin A can affect color intensity and the ability to see in dim light
  • liver is the strongest source of Vitamin A in normal diets
  • it’s very unlikely to overdose on Vitamin A; toxic is 10x the RDA
  • but, be warned that 3 oz. of polar bear liver could kill you!  It has over a million IU of Vitamin A

Vitamin D – Calciferol

  • functions: maintains the absorption of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium.  very important for bone health
  • RDA 400 IU men, 350 IU women
  • found in milk and fish oils
  • also can be “made”– the fat-like substance beneath the skin, when UV light hits the skin, turns into a precursor of Vitamin D
  • 50% of Vitamin D in our body is synthesized from UV exposure

Vitamin E – Ticopherols

  • no toxic effects when taken in excess

Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid

  • functions: antioxidant, enhances immune function, collagen formation
  • the myth that Vitamin C prevents colds isn’t necessarily true.  it has antihistaminic qualities, so it may reduce symptoms of a cold

Minerals (Major)

  • inorganic substances
  • calcium RDA 1000 mg/day (and higher for women)
  • calcium is extremely important for bone health!!!
  • bone mineral density peaks at a certain age and then declines
  • other minerals: phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, etc.

Minerals (Minor)

  • considered “trace” minerals if the RDA is <100 mg
  • iron RDA 8 mg for men, 18 mg for women
  • iron is found in the blood so ladies need more (if ya know what I’m saying)
  • studies show that coffee/tea can inhibit iron absorption by 30-35% and vitamin C enhances iron absorption
  • other minerals: copper, etc.

And that’s about it…. lots of random info, but hopefully some of it was worth noting!


Comments (2)

  1. Tara

    I always love these posts!! Gives me a little insight into what I’ll be studying in the future. I love the tidbit about the full stomach for vitamins. I always take mine right after breakfast, with the exception of calcium because 1) I usually have dairy at breakfast which means not as much will be absorbed from the supplement 2) I drink tea or coffee, which I’ve also heard causes less absorption!

  2. Jen@foodfamilyfitness

    Barf. Makes me happy I don’t eat meat anymore!!!


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

* Copy This Password *

* Type Or Paste Password Here *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>

CommentLuv badge